Silencio sísmico amenaza a Lima, Huaral y Huacho por el norte


Si usted pensaba que una mochila de emergencia no es importante, se equivoca. Ante un sismo de gran intensidad, ese puede ser su bien más preciado en una emergencia.

Según el Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), la costa peruana es una área con probabilidades de grandes terremotos. Esa característica se debe al movimiento constante de la Placa de Nazca, que desde el océano penetra al continente. 

En el mapa de riesgo del IGP hay tres zonas pintadas de color rojo donde la placa no está en movimiento. Lo normal es que la de Nazca penetre por debajo del continente. El desplazamiento se detuvo en esas zonas. Cuando se reanude habrá terremotos.

Los especialistas hablan de lagunas entre las costas de Lima, entre Nazca y Chala y Moquegua y Tacna.

Hay que estar preparados porque existe energía acumulada  entre las costas del Callao hasta Huacho.

Terremotos. Se repiten en el tiempo y en las mismas zonas. Se dice que hay silencio sísmico cuando no se produce liberación de energía. 

El investigador principal del IGP, Hernando Tavera, explica que la única manera de reducir los efectos de un fenómeno de estas características es con la prevención.

Magnitud similar

Los especialistas sostienen que los terremotos son cíclicos. La liberación de energía se produce periódicamente. Y frente a la costa de Lima, el último sismo de gran magnitud ocurrió el 28 de octubre de 1746. Alcanzó los 8.5 grados y destruyó por completo la capital de la república.

Tavera explica que desde ese año, en esta zona costera no ocurrió un sismo de la misma o mayor magnitud. Por ello es considerado un punto crítico para el país. 

«La magnitud de ocurrencia de un sismo es difícil de predecir, sin embargo, todo movimiento está asociado a eventos pasados», dijo.

Entre Nazca (Ica) y Chala (Arequipa) está la segunda zona de mayor probabilidad de terremoto. El 6 de agosto de 1913 fue la última vez que la tierra tembló, con una intensidad de 7.5 grados. Hubo 57 muertos.

«Los terremotos no cambian, siguen siendo los mismos. Lo único que cambia es que la población se incrementa enormemente y se ubica sobre zonas de alto riesgo», señala Tavera.

En el límite con Chile, entre las regiones de Moquegua y Tacna, se encuentra el otro silencio sísmico. Desde 1868 no ocurre un movimiento de la placa de 8.0 grados. En esa oportunidad hubo 700 muertos.

«Hay sismos de magnitudes pequeñas que muchas veces no son advertidos, sin embargo, un fuerte movimiento de esa intensidad aún no se repite», indicó el especialista.

En riesgo

El Centro Nacional de Estimación, Prevención y Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres (Cenepred) identificó cuatro provincias de Arequipa en peligro por sismos. Alrededor de 37 mil 498 personas están en riesgo, mientras que 11 mil 105 viviendas pueden colapsar.

Wladimiro Giovannini y Freire, jefe de la institución, dijo que si ocurriera un sismo similar al del pasado 14 de enero 2018 en Camaná; Caravelí, Condesuyos o La Unión estarían en riesgo. Sin embargo, la mayor zona vulnerable es Caylloma, no por las placas, sino por fallas geológicas.  

A nivel de Lima, los distritos más populosos construidos en arenales serian devastados.

Las provincias costeras del norte chico como Huaral, Huaura y barranca sufrirían este embate natural.

Aparición del ‘Pez de los temblores’ en mar piurano predijo sismo en Loreto

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